list-unitsList units currently in memory
list-socketsList socket units currently in memory ordered by address
list-timersList timer units currently in memory ordered by next elapse
is-activeCheck whether units are active
is-failedCheck whether units are failed
statusShow runtime status of one or more units
showShow properties of one or more
catShow files and drop-ins of specified units
helpShow manual for one or more units
list-dependenciesRecursively show units which are required or wanted by the units or by which those
startStart (activate) one or more units
stopStop (deactivate) one or more units
reloadReload one or more units
restartStart or restart one or more units
try-restartRestart one or more units if active
reload-or-restartReload one or more units if possible, otherwise start or restart
try-reload-or-restartIf active, reload one or more units, if supported, otherwise restart
isolateStart one unit and stop all others
killSend signal to processes of a unit
cleanClean runtime, cache, state, logs or configuration of unit
freezeFreeze execution of unit processes
thawResume execution of a frozen unit
set-propertySets one or more properties of a unit
bindBind-mount a path from the host into a unit's namespace
mount-imageMount an image from the host into a unit's namespace
service-log-levelGet/set logging threshold for service
service-log-targetGet/set logging target for service
reset-failedReset failed state for all, one, or more units
list-unit-filesList installed unit files
enableEnable one or more unit files
disableDisable one or more unit files
reenableReenable one or more unit files
presetEnable/disable one or more unit files based on preset configuration
preset-allEnable/disable all unit files based on preset configuration
maskMask one or more unit files
unmaskUnmask one or more unit files
linkLink one or more units files into the search path
revertRevert one or more unit files to vendor version
add-wantsAdd 'Wants' dependency for the target on specified one or more units
add-requiresAdd 'Requires' dependency for the target on specified one or more units
editEdit one or more unit files
get-defaultGet the name of the default target
set-defaultSet the default target
list-jobsList jobs
cancelCancel all, one, or more jobs
show-environmentDump environment
set-environmentSet one or more environment variables
unset-environmentUnset one or more environment variables
import-environmentImport all or some environment variables
daemon-reloadReload systemd manager configuration
daemon-reexecReexecute systemd manager
log-levelGet/set logging threshold for manager
log-targetGet/set logging target for manager
service-watchdogsGet/set service watchdog state
is-system-runningCheck whether system is fully running
defaultEnter system default mode
rescueEnter system rescue mode
emergencyEnter system emergency mode
haltShut down and halt the system
poweroffShut down and power-off the system
rebootShut down and reboot the system
kexecShut down and reboot the system with kexec
exitRequest user instance or container exit
switch-rootChange to a different root file system
suspendSuspend the system
hibernateHibernate the system
hybrid-sleepHibernate and suspend the system
suspend-then-hibernateSuspend the system, wake after a period of time, and hibernate


-h, --helpShow this help
--versionShow package version
--systemConnect to system manager
--userConnect to user service manager
-H, --host <[USER@]HOST>Operate on remote host
-M, --machine <CONTAINER>Operate on a local container
-t, --type <TYPE>List units of a particular type
--state <STATE>List units with particular LOAD or SUB or ACTIVE state
--failedShortcut for --state=failed
-p, --property <NAME>Show only properties by this name
-PEquivalent to --value --property=NAME
-a, --allShow all properties/all units currently in memory, including dead/empty ones. To list all units installed on the system, use 'list-unit-files' instead
-l, --fullDon't ellipsize unit names on output
-r, --recursiveShow unit list of host and local containers
--reverseShow reverse dependencies with 'list-dependencies'
--with-dependenciesShow unit dependencies with 'status', 'cat', 'list-units', and 'list-unit-files'
--job-mode <MODE>Specify how to deal with already queued jobs, when queueing a new job
-T, --show-transactionWhen enqueuing a unit job, show full transaction
--show-typesWhen showing sockets, explicitly show their type
--valueWhen showing properties, only print the value
--check-inhibitors <MODE>Specify if checking inhibitors before shutting down sleeping or hibernating
-iShortcut for --check-inhibitors=no
--kill-who <WHO>Whom to send signal to
-s, --signal <SIGNAL>Which signal to send
--what <RESOURCES>Which types of resources to remove
--nowStart or stop unit after enabling or disabling it
--dry-runOnly print what would be done
-q, --quietSupress output
--waitFor (re)start, wait until service stopped again. For is-system-running, wait until startup is completed
--no-blockDo not wait until operation finished
--no-wallDon't send wall message before halt/power-off/reboot
--no-reloadDon't reload daemon after en-/dis-abling unit files
--legend <BOOL>Enable/disable the legend (column headers and hints)
--no-pagerDo not pipe output into a pager
--no-ask-passwordDo not ask for system passwords
--globalEdit/enable/disable/mask default user unit files globally
--runtimeEdit/enable/disable/mask unit files temporarily until next reboot
-f, --forceWhen enabling unit files, override existing symlinks. When shutting down, execute action immediately
--preset-mode <MODE>Apply only enable, only disable, or all presets
--root <PATH>Edit/enable/disable/mask unit files in the specified root directory
-n, --lines <N>Number of journal entries to show
-o, --output <MODE>Change journal output mode
--firmware-setupTell the firmware to show the setup menu on next boot
--boot-loader-menu <TIME>Boot into boot loader menu on next boot
--boot-loader-entry <NAME>Boot into a specific boot loader entry on next boot
--plainPrint unit dependencies as a list instead of a tree
--timestamp <FORMAT>Change format of printed timestamps
--read-onlyCreate read-only bind mount
--mkdirCreate directory before mounting, if missing
--markedRestart/reload previously marked units